The urinary bladder is a muscular sac in the pelvis, just above and behind the pubic bone. When empty, the bladder is about the size and shape of a pear. Urine is made in the kidneys and travels down two tubes called ureters to the bladder. The bladder stores urine, allowing urination to be infrequent and controlled.
Leiomyosarcoma of the bladder is considered a rare but significant clinical etiology, and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality if not treated early. There remains a paucity of literature regarding this highly aggressive tumor with less than 200 cases reported to date.
Bladder cancer on x-ray
This cancer typically affects older adults. It's usually diagnosed early, when it's still treatable. It's likely to recur, so follow-up tests are typically recommended. The most common symptom is blood in the urine. Treatments include surgery, biological therapy and chemotherapy.
A bladder diverticulum is a pouch in the bladder wall that a person may either be born with ("congenital") or get later ("acquired"). A congenital bladder diverticulum forms when some of the bladder lining pokes through a weak part in the bladder wall.
Cystitis cystica is a rare chronic reactive inflammatory disorder thought to be caused by chronic irritation of the urothelium because of infection, calculi, outlet obstruction, or tumor resulting in multiple small filling defects in the bladder wall.
About the Bladder
The bladder is a hollow organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Many conditions can affect your bladder. Some common ones are
Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder, often from an infection
Urinary incontinence - loss of bladder control
Overactive bladder - a condition in which the bladder squeezes urine out at the wrong time
Interstitial cystitis - a chronic problem that causes bladder pain and frequent, urgent urination
Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays, and an examination of the bladder wall with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases